Quantum computers perform calculations based on the probability of an object’s state before it is measured – instead of just 1s or 0s – which means they have the potential to process exponentially more data compared to classical computers.
Classical computers that we use today can only encode information in bits that take the value of 1 or 0. This restricts their ability. Quantum computing, on the other hand, uses quantum bits or qubits. It harnesses the unique ability of subatomic participles that allows them to exist in more than one state i.e. a 1 and a 0 at the same time.
Benefits of Quantum Computing
- Encrytion: though quantum computers would be able to crack many of today’s encryption techniques, predictions are that they would create hack-proof replacements.
- Best of solving optimization questions: figuring out the best way to schedule flights at an airport to determining the best delivery routes for the FedEx truck
- Less power to run: quantum computers will reduce power consumption anywhere from 100 up to 1000 times because quantum computers use quantum tunnelling
Why is Quantum Computing Important Now?
- Big data: Computers have given us access to vast amounts of data, both structured (in databases and spreadsheets) and unstructured (such as text, audio, video and images). As trillions of sensors are deployed in appliances, packages, clothing, autonomous vehicles and elsewhere, “big data” will only get bigger.
- Processing power: Accelerating technologies such as cloud computing and graphics processing units have made it cheaper and faster to handle large volumes of data with complex AI-empowered systems through parallel processing.
- A connected globe: increased connectivity has accelerated the spread of information and encouraged the sharing of knowledge, leading to the emergence of a “collective intelligence”, including open-source communities developing AI tools and sharing applications.
- Open-source software and data: An open-source approach can mean less time spent on routine coding, industry standardisation and wider application of emerging AI tools.
- Improved algorithms: Researchers have made advances in several aspects of AI, particularly in “deep learning”, which involves layers of neural networks, designed in a fashion inspired by the human brain’s approach to processing information. Another emerging area of research is “deep reinforcement” in which the AI agent learns with little or no initial input data, by trial and error optimised by a reward function.
- Accelerating returns: Competitive pressures have fuelled the rise of AI, as businesses have used improved algorithms and open-source software to boost their competitive advantage and augment their returns
Levels of AI
- Automated intelligence: systems that take repeated, labour-intensive tasks requiring intelligence, and automatically complete them. For example, a robot that can learn to sort recycled household materials.
- Assisted intelligence: systems that review and reveal patterns in historical data, such as unstructured social-media posts, and help people perform tasks more quickly and better by using the information gleaned. For example, techniques such as deep learning, natural language processing and anomaly detection can uncover leading indicators of hurricanes and other major weather events.
- Augmented intelligence: systems that use AI to help people understand and predict an uncertain future. For example, AI-enabled management simulators can help examine scenarios involving climate policy and greenhouse gas emissions.
- Autonomous intelligence: systems that automate decision-making without human intervention. For example, systems that can identify patterns of high demand and high cost in home heating, adapting usage automatically to save a homeowner money.
Use Cases of Quantum Comuting
- Cut development time for chemicals and pharmaceuticals with simulations
- Solve optimization problems with unprecedented speed
- Accelerate autonomous vehicles with quantum AI
- Transform cybersecurity
The core quantum value chain that integrates the quantum engine, its infrastructure and the quantum management platforms. This value chain is mostly composed of cutting-edge physics, materials and electronics systems, many of which are still not yet fully mastered.
The non-core value chain, which is mostly based on IT technologies, to exploit, develop, distribute and use core quantum value chain capacities. This value chain behaves very similarly to a light industry such as the software industry.